From Circuit Boards to Motion Sensors:

The History of Video Game Consoles

By Dawnthea Price

The average gamer is 30, according to the Entertainment Software Association. Since the average number of playing years for a gamer is 13, that mean's today's 30-year-old gamers got their start with the Sega Genesis, SNK Neo-Geo or the Super Nintendo.

That won't make them experts with the dozen-plus consoles before this generation, nor does it necessarily make them well-versed in the 20+ various consoles that have been developed since.

Avid, casual and sporadic gamers worldwide contributed nearly $5 billion to the United States GDP in 2009 in console, game and other services provided by various developers. Last year, 188 million individual games were sold in the United States, a fraction in this multi-billion dollar industry. However, video games were not always as popular or as prevalent, and a detailed look into consoles past, beginning with the first commercial home video game console, provides the why.

Consoles are arranged chronologically from their initial launch or test market dates and include facts about their processors, compatibility with other consoles, original price (not adjusted for inflation) and number of units sold worldwide, if available.

1972-75: First Generation

Magnavox Odyssey

1972-75
Discrete Logic; N/A
$75-$100
330,000 sold[1]
More information
The Magnavox Odyssey 1TL200 was the first home television game console. Games like Cat and Mouse and Handball were played on TV sets using printed circuit board cards and controllers with rotary dials and buttons.

More than 700,000 Odysseys sold during its three years on the market. Today, a Brown Box prototype unit can be found at the Smithsonian Institute's National Museum of American History.

1976-82: Second Generation

Fairchild Channel F

1976-78
Fairchild F8; N/A
$169.95
250,000 sold
More information
Important aspects that the Atari 2600 is known for, including plug-in cartridges and the introduction of a pause button, originated in the less-than-popular Channel F from Fairchild Camera and Instrument, a transistor company.

However, an overly simple color palette and inefficient, though revolutionary joystick design left the Channel F trailing Atari's now-classic 2600, rounding out at approximately 250,000 sold.

Atari 2600

1977-92
MOS 6507 ; N/A
$200
27.64 million sold[2]
More information
If the Odyssey is the grandfather of consoles, the Atari 2600 VCS is father to the video game industry that exists today. The cartridge-based console lit up markets worldwide with its capability to play more than Pong and Volleyball, allowing third-party developers to flourish.

It was also the only platform for a popular arcade game, cementing the 2600's place in console history.

Notable 2600 games: Space Invaders, Pac-Man, Solaris

Magnavox Odyssey 2

1978-84
Intel 8048 ; NC[4]
$199
2 million sold [3]
More information
The Odyssey2, manufactured by Philips-owned Magnavox at this point, built upon the 2600's allure by introducing an alphanumeric keyboard for educational games and programming, as well as a speech synthesis unit.

Game-wise, consumers received an introduction into deeper storytelling from the Odyssey2. Unfortunately, its graphics were not on par with the competition.

Mattel Intellivision

1979-84
GI CP1610 ; N/A
$299
3 million sold (2008) [5]
More information
The home of Fisher-Price and Barbie stepped into the thick of Console Wars with the Intellivision, which featured a 16-bit processor and downloadable games. With no storage device for acquired games and shaky developer retention, the Intellivision was not a big hit with consumers.

A failed partnership that birthed the obscure PlayCable and the video game market's crash in 1983 ensured the console's short life. Mattel stepped out of the console race after discontinuing the Intellivision until 2006.

Atari 5200

1982
MOS 6502C ; Atari 2600
$330
sold N/A
More information
Based off of Atari's 400/800 home computers, but compatible with exactly zero Atari systems (including the still-available 2600), the 5200 SuperSystem was a wildly unsuccessful follow-up console with enough technical flaws to leave it as nothing more than a blip on Atari's radar.

1983-87: Third Generation

Casio PV-1000

1983
Z80A ; N/A
¥14,800
Unknown
More information
Released in Japan during October 1983, Casio's PV-1000 was pulled from store shelves soon after, leaving behind few units and little understanding of the console's capabilities. Controllers for the obscure system were also compatible with the Casio PV-2000 home computer, though game cartridges were not; Casio never explained why.

Nintendo (NES)

1983-2003
Ricoh 2A03 8-bit; N/A
$200
61.91 million sold[7]
More information
Nintendo's flagship console, known as the Famicom in Japan, appeared during a console-flooded market decline and quickly climbed its way to the top with a more intuitive controller and the overwhelming popularity of an innocuous game franchise.

The NES was so popular that Nintendo remodeled the hardware in 1993 and continued producing new units until 2003, when it was officially discontinued.[8]

Notable NES games: Super Mario Bros., The Legend of Zelda, Mega Man, Final Fantasy, Metroid

Atari 7800

1984-92
SALLY 6502 ; Atari 2600
$140
4.3 million sold[11]
More information
The 7800, a smaller and more durable console than previous Atari iterations, was released a full two years after it had been completed. Though it remained on shelves throughout the '80s, a company wide shift to focusing on personal computers meant that the 7800 did not reach the same levels of success as its predecessors.

Sega Master System

1985-98
Unknown; Sega Mark III
$200
10 million sold
More information
Sega's Master System was designed to compete with the NES, but a slow game turnaround and inconsistent quality effectively kept it from usurping Nintendo's throne.

The system wasn't fully discontinued until 1998, but sold far fewer units than its better-known successor, Sega Genesis.

Notable SMS games: Phantasy Star, Mortal Kombat

1987-91: Fourth Generation

NEC TurboGrafx-16

1987-94
Hudson Soft HuC6280 ; N/A
$199
2 million sold[6] (?)
More information
Despite a 1987 release, the TurboGrafX ended up competing against younger fourth-gen models like the Sega Genesis and Neo-Geo.

This console, which held the record for smallest console built, failed to effectively compete against Sega and Nintendo in non-Japanese markets, but largely because of a lack of third-party development rather than any technical deficiencies with the console.

Sega Genesis

1988-Present[13]
Motorola 68000; Master System
$199
29.54 million sold[12]
More information
Sega's 16-bit Genesis console saw more success in Europe than in Japan or North America, but is primarily known for a) its continued licensing via AtGames and b) this guy.

Notable Genesis games: Sonic the Hedgehog 2

SNK Neo-Geo

1990-2004
Motorola 68000; N/A
$650
sold
More information
Shin Nihon Kikaku's Neo-Geo introduced the first substantive memory card in a console, which was interchangeable with the company's arcade models.

Despite its high baseline price and high price for games, the Neo-Geo found a niche market that kept it alive for over a decade.

Super Nintendo

1990-2003
16-bit; NC
$199
49.1 million sold[16]
More information
The SNES took Nintendo's console game to new heights, but the 16-bit console never reached the same level of popularity as its predecessor. The company ceased production of hardware and software for the SNES and NES in September 2003, 20 years after the NES' introduction.[9]

Notable SNES games: Super Mario World, Donkey Kong country, Super Mario Kart, Star Fox, Chrono Trigger

1993-96: Fifth Generation

Atari Jaguar

1993-96
Motorola 68000; NC
$249
225,000 sold[14]
More information
In an early example of the 'naming objects after mammals' trend, the Atari Jaguar is one of two big cat-based consoles from Atari in the '90s. Atari Panther never made it out of design phase.

The Jaguar, the world's first 64-bit console, also came with a modem so players could communicate while playing. Unfortunately, this function was only released on one game.

Though the console was well received, it had fallen by the wayside when the Nintendo 64 was released in 1996.

Notable Jaguar games: Iron Soldier 2, Worms

Sony Playstation

1994-2006
MIPS R3000A CPU; N/A
$299
104.25 million sold[15]
More information
Originally, Sony had partnered with Nintendo to create a CD-ROM add-on to its popular SNES system. However, the partnership soon dissolved, leaving Sony with the option to scrap the project or pursue it independently.

The PlayStation, with its rich 3D environments, DualShock Analog Controllers and cartridge memory cards, became Sony's best-selling product by 1998.

Notable PS1 games: Gran Turismo, Final Fantasy VII, Tomb Raider, Tony Hawk's Pro Skater

Sega Saturn

1994-2000
Hitachi 32-bit; NC
$400
8.82 million[17]
More information
Hardware-wise, the Sega Saturn and the original PlayStation are similar: Both have dual CPUs. However, the Saturn heaped on complexity with additional processors and a mind-boggling controller that all but ensured Sony would win this round of Console Wars.

Notable Saturn game: Virtua Fighter 2

Nintendo Virtual Boy

1995
NEC V810 CPU; N/A
$180
770,000 sold[? 10]
More information
In an attempt to outdo itself, Nintendo released the 32-bit Virtual Boy as a competitor against Game Boy, its other portable system. The more advanced system was inundated with technical and visual flaws, including a stationary setup and outdated red-black LED screens. The system was discontinued within 18 months of its release.

Apple Bandai Pippin

1995
PowerPC 603 RISC; N/A
$599
12,000-42,000 sold[18]
More information
For all intents and purpose, the Pippin Atmark Player could do everything a modern console can today.

Apple had hoped the multimedia player-that-also-plays-some-games would be its big break into the console market, but the Pippin's higher-than-high price tag and lack of connectivity (it couldn't even run Netscape due to hardware constraints) makes this pre-iPod machine look like the world just wasn't ready yet.

Nintendo 64

1996-2003
64-bit NEC VR4300; NC
$199
32.93 million sold
More information
The last fifth-generation console was the iconic Nintendo 64, so named for its graphics capabilities. Though commercially successful, Nintendo wasn't pushing any boundaries by utilizing dust-prone game paks in a now CD-driven market.

Additionally, the less-ergonomic controller spawned many a joke about Nintendo's target audience.

Notable N64 games: Super Mario 64, Mario Kart 64, GoldenEye 007, The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, Pokemon Stadium, Super Smash Bros.

1999-2004: Sixth Generation

Sega Dreamcast

1998-2001
Hitachi SH-4; NC
$199
8.20 million[19]
More information
The Dreamcast should have been more popular. When it was released in 1998, it was easily the most graphically powerful console on the market. It had an ergonomic controller setup and visually setup like a Sega-branded PS1.

It should have been more successful, but wasn't; no longer a console powerhouse, Sega stopped developing consoles after the Dreamcast, which ceased production in 2001. The company held onto extra units until 2007.

Notable Dreamcast games: Sonic Adventure, Soulcalibur, Crazy Taxi

Sony Playstation 2

2000-13
64-bit Emotion Engine; PS1
$299
157.68 million sold[20]
More information
From now into the foreseeable future, Sony's success with the PlayStation 2 will be the era-defining console. Not only is it the bestselling console to date (followed by the PlayStation, the Wii and the PlayStation 3), it also has one of the most extensive game libraries with more than 10,000 titles.

Prior to the PS4's launch, Sony ended production of the PlayStation 2.[21]

Notable PS2 games: Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, Final Fantasy X, Kingdom Hearts

Nintendo GameCube

2001-07
IBM "Gekko"; NC
$199
21.74 million sold[23]
More information
While the Playstation 2 and the Xbox sought to broaden their CD drives and cross-compatibility, Nintendo opted for something different. Not only was the Nintendo Gamecube incompatible with the N64, its games were small discs completely unusable in any other machine.

The system was discontinued in 2007 as the company focused its energies more on handheld consoles and the Wii.[22]

Notable Gamecube games: Super Smash Bros. Melee, Pikmin, Animal Crossing, Luigi's Mansion

Microsoft Xbox

2001-08
Intel Pentium III; N/A
$299
24.65 million
More information
PC-driven Microsoft waited until the tail end of the sixth generation to introduce the Xbox. With the PC-like feature of a 10GB hard drive, Microsoft removed consumers' need to purchase an external memory device while preserving a high-quality experience.

The launch of Xbox Live in 2002 encouraged online play; its free and subscription service provided a new experience for all players.

Notable Xbox games: Halo 2, Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell, Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic, Fable

Atari Flashback 1 & 2

2004-2010
Unknown; N/A
$29.99
Unknown Sold
More information
More than a decade after the Jaguar's release, Atari returned on the scene with a brand-new-old console.

With a new wave of retro nostalgia for the old Atari games, the company lessened the need for modern emulators by just releasing new versions of the 2600 and 7800 hardware with the games built-in.

The console's cheap price and inclusivity of classic games made it a hit with collectors and fans.

2005-10: Seventh Generation

Microsoft Xbox 360

2005-Present
PowerPC Tri-Core; Xbox
$300
80 million sold
More information
Once Microsoft was in the console game, the company was in it to win it. However, the 360's release was marred with hardware failures, which culminated in the extension of warranty periods for consumers.

As Microsoft kept the 260 on the market for the better part of a decade before releasing a successor, it provided the company with time to play with new hardware, such as the Kinect sensor device.

Notable 360 games: Call of Duty: Black Ops, Halo 3, Minecraft, Kinect Adventures, Gears of War

Mattel Hyperscan

2006-07/dt>
Sunplus; NC
$69.99
Unknown sold
More information
The Hyperscan, somehow, did worse than its predecessor, Intellivision. The only RFID console, Mattel hoped to combine its toy-selling market with its hopeful console market.

Before it was pulled from shelves in 2007, the Hyperscan system's price dropped to approximately $10. Of the seven planned games, only five were released.

Sony Playstation 3

2006-Present
Cell Broadband; PS1, PS2
$499
80 million sold
More information
The PS3 saw the launch of the PlayStation Network, Sony's answer to Xbox Live. Additionally, though initial PS3 models were fully backward-compatible with the PS1 and PS2, newer models were released without compatibility.

PS3 games are released on Blu-ray discs, the first console to do so. Despite the PS4's launch in 2013, Sony announced that they will continue to support the PS3 until 2015.

Notable PS3 games: Grand Theft Auto 5, The Last of Us, Heavy Rain, Final Fantasy XIII

Nintendo Wii

2006-13
IBM Broadway; GameCube
$250
100.3 million sold
More information
The Wii is Nintendo's first attempt at cross-compatibility and innovation. With a motion-based, two-handed controller, CD drive and Gamecube software/hardware compatibility, Nintendo hoped to expand its customer base to non-traditional gaming demographics.

Though the Wii is still available in North America, it has been discontinued in Japan and Europe to encourage purchase of the new Wii U.

Notable Wii games: Wii Sports, Wii Fit, Super Mario Galaxy, Super Smash Bros. Brawl, Epic Mickey

Sega Firecore

2009-Present
Unknown; Genesis
Unknown
Unknown sold
More information
The Sega Firecore is actually the Sega Genesis. Sort of. In 2009, AtGames began producing a Genesis-compatible console with its Sega license and named it Firecore. AtGames re-released several classic Genesis games, which are also available via emulators as well as on the digital marketplaces for every other major console and Steam.

2012-Present: Eighth Generation

Nintendo Wii U

2012
Wii U OS; Wii, Virtual Console
$300
4.09 million sold
More information
Buzz surrounding the Wii U began in 2008, though it remained unofficial until 2011. With two new controllers, HD display and the ability to continue gameplay on the GamePad without a television, Nintendo hoped to bring back traditional fans disillusioned with the Wii.

However, a lukewarm reception during its opening month led to a market-wide scaleback of new game production for the console.

Ouya

2013
Android 4.1 Jelly Bean; N/A
$99
Unknown sold
More information
The first major Android-based console, OUYA, was funded via crowdsourcing website Kickstarter in May 2012, ultimately raising $8.5 million against a base goal of $950,000. The OUYA, released in 2013 for the low price of $99, features an 8GB flash memory, USB port, wireless controller and Bluetooth connectivity.

In addition to a lack of large developer game titles on the small console, the OUYA's hardware has not been well received. Ouya, Inc., has yet to release any figures about the number of consoles that have been sold.

Sony Playstation 4

2013
Orbis OS; NC
$400
2.1 million sold
More information
Sony previewed the PlayStation 4 after Microsoft announced the Xbox One. During their preview, Sony assuaged consumers' fears about DRM measures on used PS4 games (non-existent) to explaining the ease with which independent developers can self-publish on PlayStation Network. PS4 games are also not region-locked, which will allow owners worldwide to purchase and play games on the console in all regions.

Currently, the primary complaint about the PS4 is regarding its short supply; though Sony CEO Andrew House said the current stock would last until early 2014, many retail locations remain sold out with no clear timetable on additional units.

Microsoft Xbox One

2013
Xbox OS; NC
$500
1.19 million sold
More information
When the XBox One previewed at E3, Microsoft came under fire for being heavy-handed in its lack of backward compatibility, restriction of used games and dubious 'always-connected' clause. Within days, Microsoft was forced to backpedal on several features, including the persistent Internet connection.

Though fans and critics alike lambasted Microsoft for what was largely considered poor judgment, the Xbox One opened to high sales during its first week.

Microconsoles

2013
Android 4.1 Jelly Bean; N/A
$6.99/month - $250
sold Unknown
More information(s)
The latest wave of consoles competing in niche and mainstream markets from companies other than Sony, Nintendo and Microsoft have rebranded themselves as 'microconsoles,' low-cost devices running on Android software that connect to monitors and allow for games to be downloaded like mobile applications.

One of the major criticisms regarding microconsoles is that they may not necessarily add to the experience that already exists in smartphones, though independent game developers are expected to flourish due to their low costs.

Steam Machine

2014?
SteamOS; Cloud support
Launch Price Unknown
Pending Release
More information
Valve Corp., the company behind the digital distribution service Steam (and countless cake-based images), announced that it would be tossing a hat into the console ring with Steam Machines, outsourcing the hardware to various manufacturers and running SteamOS.

Not much is known about the Steam Machine at present. A limited beta opened to all Steam users; 300 participants were chosen based on their community contributions.